lesson 9: commands + questions (written by ijo Son)

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compared to yesterday, this lesson really isn't that bad. it's just another set of particles :)

firstly, the particle to is used to address something. the thing you want to address is always placed before to (e.g. “aspen to, sefoa!” - “you're great, aspen!”).

commands: the particle ni marks the sentence that it’s in as a command, and it can go anywhere in the command. remember that commands use hypothetical verb tenses!


“ni ilonjuon mikapa, ñyka to.” - “use this computer, ñyka.”

“piana ni pionakiy.” - “eat your food.”

questions: to make a yes/no question, place the particle sta anywhere in the part being questioned, and remember to conjugate the verbs in the question as hypothetical!


“eja hiro.” - “she spoke to him.”

“sta eja hero?” - “did she speak to him?”

remember to pay attention to what is being questioned! for example:

“isaa sta i hara?” - “can you talk?”

placing the sta after the i would be wrong, since that would imply that you're questioning if the person is talking. here, we want to ask if the person can talk, not if they are talking, so we must place the sta somewhere before the i.

sta is also used to answer yes/no questions, with sta meaning “yes”, and stañy (or just ñy) meaning “no”.

if you want to make an open-ended question (meaning a question that cannot be answered just by “yes” or “no”), use the pronoun saraso (and conjugate it as needed!) in place of whatever you want to know.


“eja hiro.” - “she spoke to him.”

“sarasa hiro?” - “who did she speak to?”

there are a few things to note here:

woo! you now know all of the sentence types, and we finally are done with particles...at least, i hope so.

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