lesson 5: modifiers

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modifiers are much easier than verbs and nouns. as their name suggests, they modify verbs and nouns, like adjectives and adverbs. you must attach the first modifier to the end of the noun/verb itself, but if there are any more modifiers, they must be detached from the noun/verb, appearing adjacent to it (they can go before or after). detached modifiers go through the same ablaut as the noun/verb they modify, but attached modifiers do not go through any ablaut.

for example, “new house” is “fotafoun;” the modifier, “foun,” is attached directly to the noun, “fota.” if fota is in the accusative case, “foto,” then “foun” remains unchanged, as it’s attached: “fotofoun.” however, if you were saying “new good house,” you would say “fotasefo foun;” the “foun” is detached from the noun, since “sefo” is already attached. if “fota” was in the accusative cause, then “foun” would become “fuon,” as it would need to go through o-ablaut to match “foto.”

genitive nouns* are used as detached modifiers. for example, to say “the person’s thing,” you would say “unso fmutui” or “fmutui unso.”

and that’s all you need to know about modifiers!

*not pronouns! instead of genitive pronouns, the possessive suffixes that we learned in the last lesson are used.

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